Houston Takes Center Stage As Major Crude Oil Trading Hub
Since the lifting of a decades-old ban on crude exports at the end of 2015, Houston has emerged as a major physical crude oil trading hub, overtaking the country’s primary crude benchmark (West Texas Intermediate, or “WTI”) pricing power long held in Cushing, Oklahoma due to access to major pipelines that run through it and ample storage space.
The surge in crude oil production can be tied to the shale boom, particularly in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, where vast amounts of crude oil flow directly to the Gulf Coast – oftentimes bypassing Cushing altogether – to destinations such as Asia, Europe and Latin America. Traders and market observers say WTI crude at Houston is a preferred futures contract hub over WTI Cushing because it better reflects global market balance and offers a more liquid market for export customers.
Since the lifting of the crude oil export ban, U.S. crude exports have surged nearly 350%, from 490,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) in January 2016 to a record 2.2 MMbbl/d in June 2018, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Rising oil production in the Permian Basin, which is estimated at around 3.5 MMbbl/d, along with increased U.S. light sweet crude exports to overseas customers, have prompted the launch of new physical futures contracts in Houston that are set to debut later this year.
In fact, the U.S. port district of Houston-Galveston earlier this year began exporting more crude oil than it imported for the first time on record, according to EIA statistics. In April 2018, crude oil exports from Houston-Galveston surpassed crude oil imports by 15,000 bbl/d. In May 2018, the difference between crude oil exports and imports increased substantially to 470,000 bbl/d.